what are this internet services: archie, gopher, veronica, WAIS, search engine, usenet, talk and IRC?

Question by Edwin L: what are this internet services: archie, gopher, veronica, WAIS, search engine, usenet, talk and IRC?

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Answer by Sc©©ttY

Archie search engine

Archie was the first search engine ever invented, designed to index FTP archives, allowing people to find specific files. The original implementation was written in 1990 by Alan Emtage, Bill Heelan, and Peter J. Deutsch, then students at McGill University in Montreal.

The earliest versions of archie simply contacted a list of FTP archives on a regular basis (contacting each roughly once a month, so as not to waste too much resources on the remote servers) and requested a listing. These listings were stored in local files to be searched using the UNIX grep command. Later, more efficient front- and back-ends were developed, and the system spread from a local tool, to a network-wide resource, to a popular service available from multiple sites around the Internet. Such archie servers could be accessed in multiple ways: using a local client (such as archie or xarchie); telneting to a server directly; sending queries by electronic mail; and later via World Wide Web interfaces.

The name derives from the word “archive”, but is also associated with the comic book series of the same name. This was not originally intended, but it certainly acted as the inspiration for the names of Jughead and Veronica, both search systems for the Gopher protocol, named after other characters from the same comics.

The World Wide Web made searching for files much easier, and there are currently very few archie servers in operation. One gateway can be found in Poland and Japan

Gopher protocol

Gopher is a distributed document search and retrieval network protocol designed for the Internet. Its goal was similar to that of the World Wide Web, and it has been almost completely displaced by the Web.

The Gopher protocol offers some features not natively supported by the Web and imposes a much stronger hierarchy on information stored on it. Its text menu interface is well-suited to computing environments that rely heavily on remote computer terminals, common in universities at the time of its creation. Some consider it to be the superior protocol for storing and searching large repositories of information.

Veronica (computer)

Veronica is a search engine system for the Gopher protocol, developed in 1992 by Steve Foster and Fred Barrie at the University of Nevada.

Veronica is (or was) a constantly updated database of the names of almost every menu item on thousands of Gopher servers. The Veronica database can be searched from most major Gopher menus.

The name, although officially an acronym for “Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Net-wide Index to Computer Archives”, was chosen to match that of the FTP search service known as Archie — Veronica Lodge being the name of another character from the Archie Comics.

Wide area information server – WAIS

Wide Area Information Servers or WAIS is a distributed text searching system that uses the protocol standard ANSI Z39.50 to search index databases on remote computers.

The WAIS protocol and servers were primarily evangelized by Thinking Machines Corporation of Cambridge, Massachusetts. Thinking Machines produced a WAIS server which ran on their CM-1 and CM-5 supercomputers. WAIS clients existed for various operating systems including Windows, Macintosh and Unix.

With the advent of the World Wide Web in the early 1990s and the bankruptcy of Thinking Machines in 1995, the primitive interface of the WAIS system quickly gave way to Web based search engines. There are few if any WAIS servers in existence on the Internet today.

One of the developers of WAIS was Brewster Kahle, who left Thinking Machines to found WAIS Inc in Menlo Park, California with Bruce Gilliat. After selling WAIS to AOL in May 1995 for $ 15 million, Kahle and Gilliat founded the Internet Archive and then Alexa Internet.

Note 1: WAIS libraries are most often found on the Internet.

Note 2: WAIS allows users to discover and access information resources on the network without regard to their physical location.

Note 3: WAIS software uses the client-server model.

Source: from Federal Standard 1037C

Search engine

This article is on the general topic; see: List of search engines, to quickly find search engines.
A search engine or search service is a program designed to help find information stored on a computer system, such as on the World Wide Web, inside a corporate or proprietary network, or in a personal computer. The search engine allows one to ask for content meeting specific criteria (typically those containing a given word or phrase) and retrieves a list of items that match those criteria. Search engines use regularly updated indexes to operate quickly and efficiently. Without further qualification, search engine usually refers to a Web search engine, which searches for information on the public Web. Other kinds of search engine are enterprise search engines, which search on intranets, personal search engines, which search individual personal computers, and mobile search engines. Different selection and relevance criteria may apply in different environments, or for different uses.

Google search is the world’s most popular search engine.Some search engines also mine data available in newsgroups, large databases, or open directories like DMOZ.org. Unlike Web directories, which are maintained by human editors, search engines operate algorithmically. Most websites which call themselves search engines are actually front ends to search engines owned by other companies

Usenet (USEr NETwork) is a global, distributed bulletin board system (BBS).

It is a distributed Internet discussion system that evolved from a general purpose UUCP network of the same name. It was conceived by Duke University graduate students Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis in 1979. Users read and post e-mail-like messages (called “articles”) to a number of distributed newsgroups, categories that resemble bulletin board systems in most respects. The medium is distributed among a large number of servers, which store and forward messages to one another. Individual users download and post messages to a single server, usually operated by their ISP or university, and the servers exchange the messages between each other.

Talk & IRC

If you want to talk and contribute a message to the conversation on a channel, just type a message and press the enter key. It will then be sent by your client application over the Internet to the IRC server, which will copy the message to any other servers on the network, and then be copied to the screens of the other members in that chat room.

When you talk, your message is prefixed with your nickname when it is displayed on other people’s screens, just like other people’s messages are when they are displayed on yours.

You should watch the conversation in a window for a few minutes after joining it before you starting talking to make sure you have some understanding of the community atmosphere that has built up in the room before you arrived. Remember the guidelines of chatiquette to ensure a pleasant and useful experience for all.

Internet Relay Chat – IRC

Internet protocol suite Layer Protocols
Application DNS, TLS/SSL, TFTP, FTP, HTTP, IMAP, IRC, NNTP, NTP, POP3, SIP, SMTP, SNMP, SSH, TELNET, BitTorrent, RTP, rlogin, …
Transport TCP, UDP, DCCP, SCTP, IL, RUDP, …
Network IP (IPv4, IPv6), ICMP, IGMP, ARP, RARP, …
Data link Ethernet, Wi-Fi, Token ring, PPP, SLIP, FDDI, ATM, DTM, Frame Relay, SMDS, …
“IRC” redirects here. For other uses, see IRC (disambiguation).
Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a form of realtime internet chat. It is mainly designed for group (many-to-many) communication in discussion forums called channels, but also allows one-to-one communication via private message.

IRC was created by Jarkko Oikarinen (nickname “WiZ”) in late August 1988 to replace a program called MUT (MultiUser talk) on a BBS called OuluBox in Finland. Oikarinen found inspiration in Bitnet Relay Chat which operated on the Bitnet network.

IRC gained prominence when it was used to report on the Soviet coup attempt of 1991 throughout a media blackout. It was previously used in a similar fashion by Kuwaitis during the Iraqi invasion. Relevant logs are available from ibiblio archive

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